Figure 2: Cardiac effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system modulation by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 act on angiotensin I and angiotensin II, respectively, to form angiotensin 1–7. Angiotensin 1–7 interaction with mas receptors counteracts the physiological consequences of angiotensin II's binding with its receptors, angiotensin II receptor type 1 and type 2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 binding with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, decreases its availability for renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, leading to accumulation of angiotensin II. This escalates vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and inflammation in cardiomyocytes, ultimately leading to cardiac damage.