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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 41-45

Coronavirus disease 2019, a popup differential to the postoperative inflammatory state and its impact on outcomes after cardiac surgery – A single-center experience

Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center, Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Visharad Trivedi
Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre, Civil Hospital Campus, Asarva, Ahmedabad - 380 016, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpcs.jpcs_47_22

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Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected care among surgical patients. Considering the underlying comorbidities, physical status, and intricate perioperative course, the cardiac surgery patient represents a vulnerable cohort. This study describes baseline characteristics, laboratory findings, diagnosis, postoperative course, and their correlation with immediate outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methodology: Patients who underwent cardiac surgery at our institute for 1 year were screened for COVID-19 with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction swab test and then were posted for surgery only after corroborating negative reports, except for emergency cases. Dedicated preoperative areas and COVID-appropriate measures were taken. Data from the electronic patient records of those diagnosed with COVID-19 in the immediate postoperative period were reviewed retrospectively. Continuous normal distributed variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation, alternatively as median ± interquartile range, and categorical variables as percentages. Results: A total of 22 patients were infected in the immediate postoperative period in spite of appropriate screening and had a high mortality of 36.36% (vs. non-COVID 6.27%, P < 0.001). Days from index surgery to diagnosis were 6 (±3.75). The median stay in the intensive care unit and hospital stay was 6 (±2.75) and 10 (±3.2) days, respectively. The moderate and high-risk categories of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II showed mortality of 33.3% (vs. 2.69% in non-COVID, odds ratio of 18.42) and 71.4% (vs. 11.2% in non-COVID, odds ratio of 19.65). Patients with C-reactive protein >100 mg/lit, D dimer >1000 ng/ml, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio >3.5 showed very high mortality. Noninvasive and invasive ventilation in 27.27% and 31.8%, respectively. Two patients acquired acute kidney injury that required hemodialysis. Conclusions: Despite requisite measures, COVID infection still remains a momentous differential to postoperative complications affecting early outcomes. Therefore, more robust preoperative protocols, better strategies for the COVID-free environment, and early clinical suspicion and workup are required to mitigate its effect on this cohort.

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