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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 202-206

Clinical and angiographic profile of patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction without established coronary artery disease

Department of Cardiology, Gobind Ballabh Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Lokesh Khandelwal
F-384, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi - 110 076
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpcs.jpcs_51_21

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Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common etiology of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (EF). Coronary angiography is usually not done in patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) without a history of acute coronary syndrome or angina, due to fear of increased risk. Hence, the prevalence of CAD in such cases remains unknown. This study aimed at analyzing the clinical and angiographic profile of the patients with severe LVSD (EF ≤35%) without established CAD. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study conducted from January 2018 to July 2019. One hundred consecutive patients (≥18 years) with severe LVSD (EF ≤35%) without established CAD were assessed for underlying CAD by coronary angiography. Patients were divided into those with no CAD and CAD. Patients having CAD were further classified into those with significant CAD and severe CAD based on angiographic lesion severity. The risk factors contributing to significant CAD were analyzed. Results: Sixty-four patients had no CAD and 36 patients had CAD, of which 34 and 26 patients had significant CAD and severe CAD, respectively. 41.7% patients had double-vessel disease followed by 33.3% and 25% patients having triple-vessel disease and single-vessel disease, respectively. The risk factors for significant CAD were male >55 years/female >65 years, male gender, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and dyslipidemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed diabetes and dyslipidemia to be the independent risk predictors for significant CAD. Conclusion: Occult CAD is present in high proportions in patients with severe LVSD without established CAD specially in presence of risk factors such as diabetes, male >55 years/female >65 years and dyslipidemia. Hence, coronary angiography should be considered strongly in such patients having one or more of these risk factors.

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